What is a choke? What does a choke do? It’s important to know what a choke is and does for your turkey hunting shotgun. Chokes simply screw into the end of the barrel of your shotgun. They come in a variety of sizes that determine how tight your pattern will be at certain distances. Shotgun patterns can be tightly constricted with pellets grouped together closely or more open when the pellets are more spread out. The three most common chokes for turkey hunting are modified, full and super full. Test all three out and consider your hunting environment before determining which choke is best for your shotgun.